XoGlo® is a purified mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) derived exosome product that contains a multitude of growth factors that can enhance the coordinated cascade of cellular and biochemical events involved in natural wound healing and skin rejuvenation. XoGlo® is a cell-free isolate of MSC exosomes. This concentrated biologic product is sterile-filtered and re-suspended in [0.9%] normal saline. Each milliliter of XoGlo® contains 1 billion MSC exosomes.
What is an Exosome?
Exosomes are powerful regenerative messages in extremely small packages. Nano-scale extracellular vesicles – very small packages of signaling information one thousandth the size of a cell. They are produced by virtually every cell type as a means of intercellular communication. This natural paracrine signaling system allows a healthy body to run like a well-oiled machine.
Exosomes contain proteins such as growth factors, enzymes, receptors, transcription factors and matrix proteins that govern cell structure, function and signaling. They also contain messenger RNA (mRNA), the blueprint for protein production, and micro RNA (miRNA), an important intracellular signaling mediator. Having the same type of membrane as their parent cells, exosomes protect these exosomal proteins and miRNA from degradation until they are delivered to the target cell.
When exosomes deliver their contents to target cells, exosomal proteins can have direct effects on intracellular processes and signaling. Exosomal mRNA may be translated by the target cell to produce numerous copies of regenerative protein. Exosomal miRNA influences target cell protein production by interfering with specific endogenous protein production.
Exosomal signaling can also alter target cell exosome loading for cascading effects and a more sustained effect than the type of proteins in PRP or amniotic fluid alone.
Does the parent cell type of the exosome matter?
Yes, the cargo of the exosomes varies significantly according to the specific parent cell type. In this case, these MSC exosomes carry the developmental message of perinatal mesenchymal stem cells, which are progenitor cells of the connective tissue lineage, meaning that they are involved in development of tissues like skin, hair, bones, muscle and cartilage.
How does Xo Glo compare to amniotic fluid?
Amniotic fluid has a significantly different protein profile than Xo Glo and lacks key proteins like TGF-b3, which is an important modulator of inflammation and immune function. Also, the exosomes present in amniotic fluid are primarily of maternal epithelial cell origin, which means that their cargo is substantially different than that of an MSC exosome.
How does Xo Glo compare to “stem cell” products often referred to umbilical cord blood, Wharton’s jelly or biologic allograft?
After thawing these frozen “stem cell” products, the viability of these allogeneic cells approaches zero, meaning that their effects are dependent on the growth factors and the low concentration of exosomes present in the product. Unlike Xo Glo, which has a very high concentration of MSC exosomes, these growth factors are not protected by the liposomal membrane.
How does this compare to bone-marrow derived exosome products?
Bone-marrow derived exosomes originate primarily from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) rather than mesenchymal stem cells, which are the source of the exosomes in Xo Glo®. These HSCs are progenitor cells of the blood cell lineage, not the connective tissue lineage, and so their exosomal cargo is much different from that of MSC exosomes. The very low numbers of MSCs that are present in adult bone marrow also differ significantly from perinatal MSCs in their exosome production, because of the specific microenvironment in which these cells reside, as well as the age of the cells.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes
This very unique type of exosomes are produced by stem cells of the connective tissue lineage – the origin of skin, hair, bone, muscle, cartilage etc. MSC exosomes are very different than exosomes found in adult bone marrow, which has a preponderance of hematopoietic stem cell exosomes, or amniotic fluid, which has primarily maternal epithelial cell exosomes. The distinct ability of MSC exosomes to induce connective tissue synthesis may be the basis of what has been observed with stem cell therapy.
Advantages of Young Progenitor Cells
As we age, the number and function of the MSCs in our tissues declines sharply. Aged autologous progenitor cells produce about 30% of the cytokines and significantly different miRNAs compared with perinatal MSCs. This substantial difference in secretome confers a significant advantage of perinatal MSC exosomes over exosomes from aged autologous or allogeneic progenitor cells.
Effects of MSC Exosomes on Skin
- Stimulate fibroblast proliferation and migration;
- Increase collagen extracellular matrix production/deposition;
- Regulate tissue remodeling to reduce scarring;
- Increase the number of hair follicles in the growth phase;
- Regenerate dermal papilla cells of hair
MSC exosomes down-regulate inflammatory proteins and upregulate anti-inflammatory proteins.
Exosomes stimulate the proliferation and migration of cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes and specific endogenous progenitor cells. This increases angiogenesis (new blood vessel formation), improves survival of damaged tissues, and reduces scarring.
Tissue Regeneration & Remodeling
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to reduce apoptosis (programmed cell death), which could lead to less tissue damage in response to disease or injury. MSC Exosomes have the capacity to enhance tissue remodeling by promoting a normal lattice- structure of collagen fibers for reduced scarring and more normal healing.